Buxar district has close linkage with that of its parent district Bhojpur and has an old and an interesting history.
Buxar is famous since the epic period for being the seats of eminent saints, battlefield of Gods and Demons as per Puranas and a combat zone between foreign invasion and countrymen in modern history. The remains from archaeological excavations have established the link of Buxar with ancient civilisations of Mohanjodaro and Harappa. This place was also known as "Siddhashram", "Vedgarbhapuri", "Karush", "Tapovan", "Chaitrath", "VyaghraSar", "Buxar" in ancient history. The History of Buxar dates back even prior to the period of Ramayana. The word Buxar is said to have been derived from VyaghraSar. The tiger face of Rishi Vedshira, an outcome of the curse of the sage Rishi Durvasha, was restored after bathing in a holy tank which was later named as VyaghraSar.
According to mythology, sage Vishwamitra the family guru of Lord Rama and eighty thousand saints, had their sacred ashram at the banks of holy river Ganges that reside inside the modern District Buxar. He was disturbed in the yagna (sacrificial offering) by the demons. The place where due killing of the famous Rakshasi (demoness) Tadika by Lord Rama, is said to fall within the present Buxar town area. Besides, Lord Rama and his younger brother Laxman took their teachings at Buxar. It is also said that Ahilya, the wife of Gautam Rishi restored her human body from that of stone and got salvation by a mere touch of the feet of Lord Rama. This place is presently known as Ahirauli and is situated six kilometers away from the Buxar town. The Kanwaldah Pokhara also known as VyaghraSar is a tourist spot now a days.
Ancient Significance of Buxar is mentioned in ancient epics like Brahamana Purana and Varah Purana
During the Mughal period, the historic battle between Humayun and Sher Shah was fought at Chousa in 1539 A.D. The British forces under Sir Heoter Munro defeated the Muslim army of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-Daulah and Shah Alam-II on 23rd June 1764 on the grounds of Katkauli situated at about 6 kilometers from Buxar town. The stone memorial erected by Britishers at Katkauli bears testament to the fight even today.